Bài giảng Tiếng Anh - Writing a Research Report - Trương Văn Ánh

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  1. Writing a Research Report Mr. Ánh
  2. Organization of a Research Report 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Method 4. Result 5. Discussion 6. Conclusion
  3. Chapter 1 An overview: Writing a research report I. What is research? A serious study of a subject in order to discover new facts and ideas or test new ideas. A series of activities of finding information about something. II. Types of research: Pure research, applied research, primary research, secondary research, theoretical research, empirical research and descriptive research. (seven types)
  4. Exercises: Identify the types of the following research: 1. A way to get customers to consume more coffee. 2. A machine takes care of children. 3. A research report of the development of Vietnamese aquaculture. 4. A way to attract more tourists to Monkey Island. 5. A way to put the activities at Saigon University campus in better order. 6. The influence of Nguyen Dinh Chieu’s patriotic thought on the movements of resistant war in South Vietnam.
  5. III. Kinds of research methods often used in tourism and hospitality Quantitative method Qualitative method In field of tourism and hospitality, the research methods have four categories: Case study techniques, multivariate methods, conceptual approach and survey research method.
  6. IV. The research process According to Weaver and Oppermann, there are seven stages in the research process. 1. Problem recognition 2. Question formulation 3. Identification of data requirements 4. Data collection 5. Data analysis 6. Data presentation 7. Data interpretation
  7. V. Guidelines for writing a research proposal Research proposals include: name, title, statement of objective, background, methodology, outline, timescale and references. VI. Organization of a research report 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Method 4. Result 5. Discussion 6. Conclusion
  8. VII. Some tips for student researchers - Narrowing down the area of study. - Research methods and writing skills - Participation in workshops and conferences. - Participation in contests - Financial aids
  9. Multiple choice: 1. A research report includes ___ parts. A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 7 2. A research report excludes ___. A. Introduction B. body C. conclusion D. method 3. Types of research exclude ___ research. A. Pure B. third C. theoretical D. primary 4. According to Weaver and Oppermann, there are ___ stages in the research process. A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 7 5. A research proposal may include ___ elements. A. 10 B. 9 C. 8 D. 7
  10. 6. Basically, there are ___ main parts in the introduction of an experimental research report. A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 7 7. Generally, the elements of in-text references exclude ___. A. The author’s last name B. The year of publication C. The page numbers of the text D. The type of the text
  11. 8. ___ is one type of in-text citation. A. Author prominent B. Text prominent C. Information prominent D. Both A and C 9. To cite a resource, a writer may use ___. A. direct quotation B. summarizing C. paraphrasing D. All the above 10. A research method may be qualitative or ___. A. quantitative B. relative C. comparative D. All the above
  12. 11. The abstract provides a ___ of our research. A. conclusion B. summary C. purpose D. result 12. The order of typical elements included in an abstract is as follows: B, P, M, R, C. R stands for ___. A. review B. recess C. result D. research
  13. Chapter 2 INTRODUCTION General information about the research. There are five parts in the introduction: - Background: context - Literature review: Brief report of what has been done. - Objectives: The aim of the study - Scopes: The limits of the study - Organization: The parts of the study.
  14. Read the sample on pages 9 and 10 and do exercise 1. BACKGROUND Moving from general to specific (funnel method) Raising a problem. Or raising a demand OBJECTIVES Aims What to do Result
  15. SCOPES The limits ORGANIZATION How many chapters? What is in each chapter?
  16. Chapter 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Part A: Overview and Purposes To avoid plagiarizing Part B: In-text references: three elements: last name, year of publication, page number. Types of in-text citation Ways to cite a resource
  17. Direct quotation Indirect quotation Paraphrasing Summarizing The reference list:
  18. Book reference 1. Author’s name (surname, initial, first name) 2. Year of publication (in parentheses) 3. Title (in italic) 4. Place of publication 5. Publisher Notes: Comma between surname and first name. No punctuation between year of publication and title. Comma between title and place. Colon between place and publisher. Full stop in the end. Ho, Chi Minh (1962) Nhat ki trong tu, Hanoi: Su that.
  19. Chapter 4 METHOD There are two methods: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative: the skills of the researcher in collecting data. Quantitative: reliance on the research instruments used to collect and analyze data.
  20. A. Procedural Description: - Overview sample: subjects - Sampling technique: how to choose subjects - Materials procedure: questionnaire, interview - Statistical treatment: Treating data statistically to reveal the subjects’ attitudes toward the topic/research.
  21. Elements of the method: Overview: setting Sample: number of subjects (age, sex, nationality, family background, professional background, etc.) Sampling technique: how the research is conducted and how the materials are used. Statistical treatment: How the collected data are treated and analyzed.
  22. Information elements included in the method: 1. Overview of the experiment 2. Population/sample 3. Location 4. Sampling technique 5. Procedures 6. Materials 7. Variables 8. Statistical treatment
  23. B. Materials: Laboratory equipment Field equipment Human or animal subjects Surveys, questionnaires and tests Interview questions Computer models
  24. Questionnaire design: a. Types of questions: Open and closed b. Simple common sense rules in questionnaire design. - Use simple and concise language. - Each question should ask about one “thing” only. - Each question should have no escape route, i.e. “Don’t know; No comment; It depends. - Be polite
  25. - Get the question order right. - Make the layout easy to follow. - Give clear instructions. - Test the questions. - Test the questionnaire first.
  26. Language conventions - Past simple is used to describe procedures - Present simple is used to describe conventional materials.
  27. Chapter 5 RESULTS The results present the findings of the study: a. Figures include graphs, tables and diagrams. b. Written texts interpret the most important aspects of the results.
  28. I. Information conventions: a. Locating the figures b. Presenting the findings - Variation or fluctuation over time - Relationship of one or more variables - Comparison c. Commenting on the results - Generalizing from the results - Explaining possible reasons for the results - Comparing the results with results from other studies, or with empirical research.
  29. II. Language conventions a. Locating the figures: Present simple, expressions b. Presenting the findings: Past simple c. Commenting on the results: Present simple
  30. Chapter 6 DISCUSSION - Summary of the study - Focus on whether or not the objectives have been met. - Implications of the research - Restrictions/limitations to generalize the findings - Recommendation for further research.
  31. Information elements Objective Findings Explanation for findings Implication Need for further research
  32. Chapter 7 ABSTRACT Summary Key words (They are in both Vietnamese and English)
  33. The order in an abstract: B: background information P: purpose of the study M: methodology used in the study R: the most important results of the study C: Conclusion or recommendation
  34. The order in a reduced abstract: P + M: purpose of the study and methodology R: the most important results of the study C: Conclusion or recommendation
  35. Homework: Write an outline for a research report on the following topic: Peddlers annoy tourists with extreme behaviors.
  36. Research topic: Peddlers annoy tourists with extreme behaviors Sai Gon University
  37. Abstract: Background/Situation: Peddlers everywhere Literature review Solution/result: How to solve/reduce Key words: Peddler, extreme behavior, annoy
  38. Introduction: The situation of the tourism in Vietnam The situation of the peddlers everywhere The annoyance the tourists suffer from The literature on this problem The scope of the research The method of the research The solution to the problem The general result The organization of the research
  39. Literature review: Books Articles (newspapers, magazines) Reports/minutes
  40. Method: Quantitative Sample Designing questionnaires (3) Materials Statistic treatment
  41. Results: Locating figures Findings Comments/discussions Solutions
  42. Conclusion: The generalization/summary The achieved objectives The limitations: Peddlers The recommendations/suggestions: Beggars
  43. Answer: I. Multiple choice: 2 marks 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. D 8. D 9. D 10. A 11. B 12. C II. Essay: 8 marks Introduction: 2 marks Body: 5 marks Conclusion: 1 mark