Bài giảng Tiếng Anh - TOEFL - Trương Văn Ánh

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  1. TOEFL Trương Văn Ánh Trường Đại học Sài Gũn
  2. Since its inception in 1964, the TOEFL test has evolved from a paper-based test to a computer- based test and, in 2005, to an internet-based test. More importantly, beyond changes in the medium of test delivery, innovations in theories of language proficiency have motivated the redesign of the test’s construct (what it measures), content, and item types.
  3. 1. The First TOEFL Test. When the first TOEFL test was developed, linguistic theories envisioned language competence as a set of separate components such as grammar, vocabulary, and comprehension (Carroll, 1961; Lado, 1961). This focus on discrete language components or skills was compatible with multiple-choice item types, paper-and-pencil testing, and measurement practices that were current at the time.
  4. 2. A Suite of TOEFL Tests. In the 1970s, attention turned to the expansion of the TOEFL construct to include speaking and writing. A multiple-choice TOEFL test that assessed reading, listening, and structure and written expression continued to be administered to all candidates. The TWE test, originally known as the Test of Written English, was introduced in 1986 and consisted of a single essay written in response to a brief question or topic. The TWE test required test takers to develop and organize ideas and express these ideas using appropriate English vocabulary and grammar.
  5. 3. The TOEFL iBT Test. In the 1990s, the TOEFL program, in consultation with the COE, considered how to design a new TOEFL test that was more reflective of communicative competence and that could be delivered efficiently to an expanding variety of test takers worldwide while maintaining key aspects of standardized test administration, scoring, and security. The optimal delivery medium for the test was determined to be via the internet at official, authorized test centers, as the time between taking a test and receiving a score could be reduced considerably. Hence, the original name of the test was the internet-based test, later abbreviated to iBT.
  6. • The TOEFL test was first administered in 1964 by the Modern Language Association financed by grants from the Ford Foundation and Danforth Foundation.[7] • In 1965, The College Board and ETS jointly assumed responsibility for the continuation of the TOEFL testing program.
  7. Internet-based test (iBT) 1. Reading The Reading section consists of questions on 3-4 passages, each approximately 700 words in length and with 10 questions. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare- contrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. New types of questions in the TOEFL iBT test require filling out tables or completing summaries. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer.
  8. 2. Listening The Listening section consists of questions on 2- 3 conversations with 5 questions each, and 5-7 lectures with 6 questions each. Each conversation is 2.5-3 minutes and lectures are 4.5-5.5 minutes in length. The conversations involve a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. The lectures are a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture passage is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. The listening questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.
  9. 3. Speaking The Speaking section consists of 4 tasks: 1 independent (Task 1) and 3 integrated (Task 2, 3, 4). In task 1, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In task 2 and 4, test- takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In task 3, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. The responses are digitally recorded, sent to ETS's Online Scoring Network (OSN), and evaluated by three to six raters.
  10. 4. Writing The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: one integrated and one independent. In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss it. The test-taker then writes a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explains how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states their opinion or choice, and then explain it, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices. Responses are sent to the ETS OSN and evaluated by at least 3 different raters.
  11. Task Description Approximate time 3-4 passages, each containing Reading 54-72 minutes 10 questions 5-7 passages, each containing Listening 41-57 minutes 5–6 questions Break Mandatory break 10 minutes Speaking 4 tasks 17 minutes Writing 2 tasks 50 minutes
  12. Paper-delivered Test • The TOEFL PDT is an official test for use where the internet test is unavailable, usually due to internet & computer issues. • It consists of the Listening, Reading, and Writing sections, with scores that are the same scale as the Internet Based Test. There is no total score.
  13. Paper-based test (PBT) • The TOEFLđ paper-based Test (PBT) was still available in limited areas until 2017, when it was replaced by the Paper-delivered test. Scores are valid for two years after the test date, and test takers can have their scores sent to institutions or face time. 1. Listening (30 – 40 minutes) The Listening section consists of 3 parts. The first one contains 30 questions about short conversations. The second part has 8 questions about longer conversations. The last part asks 12 questions about lectures or talks.
  14. 2. Structure and Written Expression (25 minutes) The Structure and Written Expression section has 15 exercises of completing sentences correctly and 25 exercises of identifying errors. 3. Reading Comprehension (55 minutes) The Reading Comprehension sections has 50 questions about reading passages. 4. Writing (30 minutes) The TOEFL PBT administrations include a writing test called the Test of Written English (TWE). This is one essay question with 250–300 words in average.
  15. TOEFL iBT Test • The TOEFL iBT test is scored on a scale of 0 to 120 points. • Each of the four sections (Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing) receives a scaled score from 0 to 30. The scaled scores from the four sections are added together to determine the total score. • The reading and listening sections are tested first, followed by a ten-minute break. The speaking and writing sections are then completed following the break. A maximum amount of 203 minutes is allowed to complete the whole exam process. • Each speaking question is initially given a raw score of 0 to 4, with 1-point increment, and each writing question is initially given a raw score of 0.0 to 5.0, with 0.5-point increment. These scores are converted to scaled scores of 0 to 30.
  16. Paper-based Test • The final PBT score ranges between 310 and 677 and is based on three subscores: Listening (31–68), Structure (31–68), and Reading (31–67). Unlike the CBT, the score of the Writing component (referred to as the Test of Written English, TWE) is not part of the final score; instead, it is reported separately on a scale of 0–6. • The score test takers receive on the Listening, Structure and Reading parts of the TOEFL test is not the percentage of correct answers. The score is converted to take into account the fact that some tests are more difficult than others. The converted scores correct these differences. Therefore, the converted score is a more accurate reflection of the ability than the raw score is. • The TOEFL PBT was discontinued at the end of May 2017. Official testing in areas without internet or computers now uses the TOEFL PDT
  17. Linking TOEFL iBT Score Ranges to other scores IELTS Score TOEFL Score TOEFL PBT Score CEFR IELTS Description 9.0 118-120 667 - 677 Expert User C2 8.5 115-117 657 - 663 Very Good User 8.0 110-114 637 - 653 7.5 102-109 610 - 633 C1 Good User 7.0 94-101 587 - 607 6.5 79-93 550 - 583 Competent User 6.0 60-78 500 - 547 B2 5.5 46-59 453 - 497 Modest User 5.0 35-45 417 - 450 B1 4.5 32-34 400 - 413 Limited User Extremely 0.0 - 4.0 0-31 310 - 397 A1-B1 Limited/Intermitte nt/Non User
  18. CEFR TOEFL Reading Listening Speaking Writing C1 95 24 22 25 24 B2 72 18 17 20 17 B1 42 4 9 16 13 A2 N/A N/A N/A 10 7
  19. Good luck!